Jesper Bláfoss Ingvardson, Mikkel Thorhauge, Sigal Kaplan, Otto Anker Nielsen, and Sebastián Raveau. 2021. “Incorporating psychological needs in commute mode choice modelling: a hybrid choice framework.” Transportation. Abstract
This study proposes an integrated choice and latent variable model (ICLV) for commute mode choice that incorporates satisfaction of human needs and perceived functional and psychological barriers to using certain modes. The modelling framework is validated by data from a survey of commuters in the Greater Copenhagen area, which has large numbers of car users, public transport riders and bicyclists. The model results suggest that higher bicycle use is correlated to positive cycling self-concepts. Similarly, the commute choice of driving is positively correlated with car self-concepts and negatively correlated with functional difficulties in car use. Respondents with a strong focus on functional travel needs are most likely to commute using a car and least likely to use public transport. Evaluation of the effects of improving conditions for bicycles showed that the latent variables had a large influence on the potential mode shifts, highlighting that the mode choice of travellers is largely associated with mode-specific perceptions and fulfilment of travel needs rather than solely level-of-service characteristics. By analysing the mode shifts across the latent variables, further insights on the motives for travel behaviour decisions were obtained, thereby highlighting the superiority of ICLV models to simple multinomial logit models. Furthermore, the study also revealed that socio-economic variables could explain mode choice both directly and indirectly through their impact on the latent variables. This means that a given policy might have a different impact according to the present ICLV model than when estimated by traditional models.
Zeev Goldschmidt and Ittay Nissan-Rozen. 2021. “The intrinsic value of risky prospects.” Synthese, 198, Pp. 7553-7575. Abstract
We study the representation of attitudes to risk in Jeffrey’s (The logic of decision, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1965) decision-theoretic framework suggested by Stefánsson and Bradley (Philos Sci 82(4):602–625, 2015; Br J Philos Sci 70(1):77–102, 2017) and Bradley (Econ Philos 32(2):231–248, 2016; Decisions theory with a human face, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2017). We show that on this representation, the value of any prospect may be expressed as a sum of two components, the prospect’s instrumental value (the value the prospect has only in virtue of the outcomes it might lead to) and the prospect’s intrinsic value (the value the prospect has only in virtue of the way it assigns different probabilities to the different outcomes). Both components have an expectational form. We also make a distinction between a prospect’s overall intrinsic value and a prospect’s conditional intrinsic value given each one of its possible outcomes and argue that this distinction has great explanatory power. We explore the relation between these two types of intrinsic values and show that they are determined at the level of preferences. Finally, we explore the relation between the intrinsic values of different prospects and point to a strong restriction on this relation that is implicit in Jeffrey’s axioms. We suggest a natural interpretation to this restriction.
Morr Link and Yoram Z. Haftel. 2021. “Islamic legal tradition and the choice of investment arbitration forums.” Review of International Political Economy, 28, Pp. 559-583.
Lily Agranat-Tamir, Shamam Waldman, Naomi Rosen, Benjamin Yakir, Shai Carmi, and Liran Carmel. 2021. “LINADMIX: evaluating the effect of ancient admixture events on modern populations.” Bioinformatics, 37, Pp. 4744-4755. Abstract
The rise in the number of genotyped ancient individuals provides an opportunity to estimate population admixture models for many populations. However, in models describing modern populations as mixtures of ancient ones, it is typically difficult to estimate the model mixing coefficients and to evaluate its fit to the data.We present LINADMIX, designed to tackle this problem by solving a constrained linear model when both the ancient and the modern genotypes are represented in a low-dimensional space. LINADMIX estimates the mixing coefficients and their standard errors, and computes a P-value for testing the model fit to the data. We quantified the performance of LINADMIX using an extensive set of simulated studies. We show that LINADMIX can accurately estimate admixture coefficients, and is robust to factors such as population size, genetic drift, proportion of missing data and various types of model misspecification.LINADMIX is available as a python code at data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Malka Gorfine, Nir Keret, Asaf Ben Arie, David Zucker, and Li Hsu. 2021. “Marginalized Frailty-Based Illness-Death Model: Application to the UK-Biobank Survival Data.” Journal of the American Statistical Association, 116, Pp. 1155-1167.
Malka Gorfine, Nir Keret, Asaf Ben Arie, David Zucker, and Li Hsu. 2021. “Marginalized Frailty-Based Illness-Death Model: Application to the UK-Biobank Survival Data.” Journal of the American Statistical Association, 116, Pp. 1155-1167. Abstract
AbstractThe UK Biobank is a large-scale health resource comprising genetic, environmental, and medical information on approximately 500,000 volunteer participants in the United Kingdom, recruited at ages 40?69 during the years 2006?2010. The project monitors the health and well-being of its participants. This work demonstrates how these data can be used to yield the building blocks for an interpretable risk-prediction model, in a semiparametric fashion, based on known genetic and environmental risk factors of various chronic diseases, such as colorectal cancer. An illness-death model is adopted, which inherently is a semi-competing risks model, since death can censor the disease, but not vice versa. Using a shared-frailty approach to account for the dependence between time to disease diagnosis and time to death, we provide a new illness-death model that assumes Cox models for the marginal hazard functions. The recruitment procedure used in this study introduces delayed entry to the data. An additional challenge arising from the recruitment procedure is that information coming from both prevalent and incident cases must be aggregated. Lastly, we do not observe any deaths prior to the minimal recruitment age, 40. In this work, we provide an estimation procedure for our new illness-death model that overcomes all the above challenges. Supplementary materials for this article, including a standardized description of the materials available for reproducing the work, are available as an online supplement.
Tommaso Trillò and Limor Shifman. 2021. “Memetic commemorations: remixing far-right values in digital spheres.” Information, Communication & Society, 24, Pp. 2482-2501.
Barak Ben-Aroia and Tobias Ebbrecht-Hartmann. 2021. “Memorials as discursive spheres: Holocaust and Second World War iconography in public commemoration of extremist-right violence.” Memory Studies, 14, Pp. 797-818. Abstract
In recent decades, the experience of non-governmental politically motivated violence became a central element of global memory culture. Motivated by several shocking attacks at the beginning of the new millennium, this commemorative culture evolved in a memory ecology, which was significantly shaped by the prosperity of global Holocaust memory. Therefore, public commemoration of politically motivated violence intersects different discursive elements, leading to multidirectional forms of memory. Based on interdisciplinary theoretical approaches, this article examines public memorials commemorating two notable cases of neo-Nazi xenophobic attacks in Germany as discursive spheres referring to the confrontation with the country’s unique past and its impact on Germany’s contemporary self-image challenged by right-wing extremism. We argue that various commemorative actors in the field adopted and appropriated Second World War and Holocaust-related iconography and terminology to shape these memory sites as instruments linking current Germany to the period of National Socialism.
Neta Rimmerman, Hodaya Verdiger, Hagar Goldenberg, Lior Naggan, Elad Robinson, Ewa Kozela, Sivan Gelb, Ronen Reshef, Karen M. Ryan, Lily Ayoun, Ron Refaeli, Einat Ashkenazi, Nofar Schottlender, Laura Ben Hemo-Cohen, Claudia Pienica, Maayan Aharonian, Eyal Dinur, Koby Lazar, Declan M. McLoughlin, Ayal Ben Zvi, and Raz Yirmiya. 2021. “Microglia and their LAG3 checkpoint underlie the antidepressant and neurogenesis-enhancing effects of electroconvulsive stimulation.” Molecular Psychiatry. Abstract
Despite evidence implicating microglia in the etiology and pathophysiology of major depression, there is paucity of information regarding the contribution of microglia-dependent molecular pathways to antidepressant procedures. In this study, we investigated the role of microglia in a mouse model of depression (chronic unpredictable stress—CUS) and its reversal by electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS), by examining the effects of microglia depletion with the colony stimulating factor-1 antagonist PLX5622. Microglia depletion did not change basal behavioral measures or the responsiveness to CUS, but it completely abrogated the therapeutic effects of ECS on depressive-like behavior and neurogenesis impairment. Treatment with the microglia inhibitor minocycline concurrently with ECS also diminished the antidepressant and pro-neurogenesis effects of ECS. Hippocampal RNA-Seq analysis revealed that ECS significantly increased the expression of genes related to neurogenesis and dopamine signaling, while reducing the expression of several immune checkpoint genes, particularly lymphocyte-activating gene-3 (Lag3), which was the only microglial transcript significantly altered by ECS. None of these molecular changes occurred in microglia-depleted mice. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that ECS reversed the CUS-induced changes in microglial morphology and elevation in microglial LAG3 receptor expression. Consistently, either acute or chronic systemic administration of a LAG3 monoclonal antibody, which readily penetrated into the brain parenchyma and was found to serve as a direct checkpoint blocker in BV2 microglia cultures, rapidly rescued the CUS-induced microglial alterations, depressive-like symptoms, and neurogenesis impairment. These findings suggest that brain microglial LAG3 represents a promising target for novel antidepressant therapeutics.
Neta Kligler-Vilenchik, Maya de Vries Kedem, Daniel Maier, and Daniela Stoltenberg. 2021. “Mobilization vs. Demobilization Discourses on Social Media.” Political Communication, 38, Pp. 561-580. Abstract
ABSTRACTWhile scholarly attention has been devoted to social media?s potential mobilizing function, they may also contribute to demobilization discourses: social communication actively promoting nonvoting. This paper examines discourses around mobilization vs. demobilization in the context of the municipal elections in Jerusalem. As the sweeping majority of East Jerusalem Palestinians have continuously been boycotting Jerusalem?s municipal elections, this is a potent case through which to examine how demobilization functions in action, through social media conversations. Using a mixed-methods analysis of Twitter contents as structured by different languages, our findings show how mobilization and demobilization discourses can co-occur during the same election event. Users of different languages ? reflecting different social and political identities ? interpret the elections in contrasting ways, with tangible implications for (in)equality in political participation. The study thus contributes theoretically to several domains of political communication, including election studies, local politics, and language fragmentation in online political discourse.
Yael Millgram, June Gruber, Cynthia M. Villanueva, Anna Rapoport, and Maya Tamir. 2021. “Motivations for Emotions in Bipolar Disorder.” Clinical Psychological Science, 9, Pp. 666-685. Abstract
Recent work has begun to examine the link between motivation for specific emotions and psychopathology. Yet research on this topic to date has focused primarily on depression. To understand patterns of motivation for emotions within and across affective disorders, we assessed motivation for emotions in adults at increased risk for and diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD). We focused on motivation for negative (i.e., sadness) and positive (i.e., happiness) emotions and for emotional instability using self-report and behavioral measures. Both increased BD risk and diagnosis of BD were associated with increased motivation for sadness and decreased motivation for happiness as assessed by behavioral measures. Such motivational tendencies were less consistent when assessed by self-reports. Higher BD risk was associated with increased self-reported motivation for emotional instability (Studies 1–3), although this association was not evident in BD (Study 4). Findings suggest both similarities and differences in motivation for emotions in affective disorders.
Aysha Agbarya and Nicholas John. 2021. “Online tie and content management and changing religious identity among Muslim Arab women in Israel.” Information, Communication & Society, Pp. 1-16.
H. Klein, K. Asseo, N. Karni, Y. Benjamini, R. Nir-Paz, M. Muszkat, S. Israel, and M.Y. Niv. 2021. “Onset, duration and unresolved symptoms, including smell and taste changes, in mild COVID-19 infection: a cohort study in Israeli patients.” Clin Microbiol Infect, 27, Pp. 769-74. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To characterize longitudinal symptoms of mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients for a period of 6 months, to potentially aid in disease management. METHODS: Phone interviews were conducted with 103 patients with mild COVID-19 in Israel over a 6-month period (April 2020 to October 2020). Patients were recruited via social media and word to mouth and were interviewed up to 4 times, depending on reports of their unresolved symptoms. Inclusion criteria required participants to be residents of Israel aged 18 years or older, with positive COVID-19 real-time PCR results and nonsevere symptoms. The onset, duration, severity and resolution of symptoms were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 44% (45/103), 41% (42/103), 39% (40/103) and 38% (39/103) of patients experienced headache, fever, muscle ache and dry cough as the first symptom respectively. Smell and taste changes were experienced at 3.9 ± 5.4 and 4.6 ± 5.7 days (mean ± standard deviation (SD)) after disease onset respectively. Among prevalent symptoms, fever had the shortest duration (5.8 ± 8.6 days), and taste and smell changes were the longest-lasting symptoms (17.2 ± 17.6 and 18.9 ± 19.7 days; durations censored at 60 days). Longer recovery of the sense of smell correlated with the extent of smell change. At the 6-month follow-up, 46% (47/103) of the patients had at least one unresolved symptom, most commonly fatigue (22%, 23/103), smell and taste changes (15%, 15/103 and 8%, 8/103 respectively) and breathing difficulties (8%, 8/103). CONCLUSIONS: Long-lasting effects of mild COVID-19 manifested in almost half of the participants reporting at least one unresolved symptom after 6 months.
The world abounds with different perspectives, which necessitates balancing between maintaining the currently relevant perspective and flexibly switching between perspectives, if needed. Employing the distinction between reactive and proactive control (Braver, 2012), we argue that previous research on perspective-taking has mainly looked at the cost of activating reactive control to deal with what is happening now. Here we examine the cost of activating proactive control in order to be prepared for what might happen in the future. In three experiments, we embed a perspective-taking task (Samson et al., 2010) into a task-switching design and calculate perspective-mixing costs to capture proactive control. We show that a context in which perspective shifts might occur unpredictably (compared to a context in which such shifts are not expected) results in a poorer ability to maintain any perspective, but especially one's own. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Moran Yarchi, Christian Baden, and Neta Kligler-Vilenchik. 2021. “Political Polarization on the Digital Sphere: A Cross-platform, Over-time Analysis of Interactional, Positional, and Affective Polarization on Social Media.” Political Communication, 38, Pp. 98-139. Abstract
ABSTRACTPolitical polarization on the digital sphere poses a real challenge to many democracies around the world. Although the issue has received some scholarly attention, there is a need to improve the conceptual precision in the increasingly blurry debate. The use of computational communication science approaches allows us to track political conversations in a fine-grained manner within their natural settings ? the realm of interactive social media. The present study combines different algorithmic approaches to studying social media data in order to capture both the interactional structure and content of dynamic political talk online. We conducted an analysis of political polarization across social media platforms (analyzing Facebook, Twitter, and WhatsApp) over 16 months, with close to a quarter million online contributions regarding a political controversy in Israel. Our comprehensive measurement of interactive political talk enables us to address three key aspects of political polarization: (1) interactional polarization ? homophilic versus heterophilic user interactions; (2) positional polarization ? the positions expressed, and (3) affective polarization ? the emotions and attitudes expressed. Our findings indicate that political polarization on social media cannot be conceptualized as a unified phenomenon, as there are significant cross-platform differences. While interactions on Twitter largely conform to established expectations (homophilic interaction patterns, aggravating positional polarization, pronounced inter-group hostility), on WhatsApp, de-polarization occurred over time. Surprisingly, Facebook was found to be the least homophilic platform in terms of interactions, positions, and emotions expressed. Our analysis points to key conceptual distinctions and raises important questions about the drivers and dynamics of political polarization online.
Elizabeth Levy Paluck, Roni Porat, Chelsey S. Clark, and Donald P. Green. 2021. “Prejudice Reduction: Progress and Challenges.” Annual Review of Psychology, 72, Pp. 533-560. Abstract
The past decade has seen rapid growth in research that evaluates methods for reducing prejudice. This essay reviews 418 experiments reported in 309 manuscripts from 2007 to 2019 to assess which approaches work best and why. Our quantitative assessment uses meta-analysis to estimate average effects. Our qualitative assessment calls attention to landmark studies that are noteworthy for sustained interventions, imaginative measurement, and transparency. However, 76% of all studies evaluate light touch interventions, the long-term impact of which remains unclear. The modal intervention uses mentalizing as a salve for prejudice. Although these studies report optimistic conclusions, we identify troubling indications of publication bias that may exaggerate effects. Furthermore, landmark studies often find limited effects, which suggests the need for further theoretical innovation or synergies with other kinds of psychological or structural interventions. We conclude that much research effort is theoretically and empirically ill-suited to provide actionable, evidence-based recommendations for reducing prejudice.
Yinon M. Bar-On, Yair Goldberg, Micha Mandel, Omri Bodenheimer, Laurence Freedman, Sharon Alroy-Preis, Nachman Ash, Amit Huppert, and Ron Milo. 2021. “Protection against Covid-19 by BNT162b2 Booster across Age Groups.” New England Journal of Medicine, 385, Pp. 2421-2430.
Anat Tchetchik, Sigal Kaplan, and Vered Blass. 2021. “Recycling and consumption reduction following the COVID-19 lockdown: The effect of threat and coping appraisal, past behavior and information.” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 167, Pp. 105370.
Roberto Danovaro, Emanuela Fanelli, Jacopo Aguzzi, David Billett, Laura Carugati, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Dell’Anno, Kristina Gjerde, Alan J. Jamieson, Salit Kark, Craig McClain, Lisa A. Levin, Noam Levin, Eva Ramirez-Llodra, Henry A. Ruhl, Craig R. Smith, Paul V. R. Snelgrove, Laurenz Thomsen, Cindy L. Van Dover, and Moriaki Yasuhara. 2021. “Reply to: Ecological variables for deep-ocean monitoring must include microbiota and meiofauna for effective conservation.” Nature Ecology & Evolution, 5, Pp. 30-31.