Yotam Margalit and Moses Shayo. 2021. “How Markets Shape Values and Political Preferences: A Field Experiment.” American Journal of Political Science, 65, Pp. 473-492. Abstract
Abstract How does engagement with markets affect socioeconomic values and political preferences? A long line of thinkers has debated the nature and direction of such effects, but claims are difficult to assess empirically because market engagement is endogenous. We designed a large field experiment to evaluate the impact of financial markets, which have grown dramatically in recent decades. Participants from a national sample in England received substantial sums they could invest over a 6-week period. We assigned them into several treatments designed to distinguish between different theoretical channels of influence. Results show that investment in stocks led to a more right-leaning outlook on issues such as merit and deservingness, personal responsibility, and equality. Subjects also shifted to the right on policy questions. These results appear to be driven by growing familiarity with, and decreasing distrust of markets. The spread of financial markets thus has important and underappreciated political ramifications.
Malka Gorfine, Nir Keret, Asaf Ben Arie, David Zucker, and Li Hsu. 2021. “Marginalized Frailty-Based Illness-Death Model: Application to the UK-Biobank Survival Data.” Journal of the American Statistical Association, 116, Pp. 1155-1167. Abstract
AbstractThe UK Biobank is a large-scale health resource comprising genetic, environmental, and medical information on approximately 500,000 volunteer participants in the United Kingdom, recruited at ages 40?69 during the years 2006?2010. The project monitors the health and well-being of its participants. This work demonstrates how these data can be used to yield the building blocks for an interpretable risk-prediction model, in a semiparametric fashion, based on known genetic and environmental risk factors of various chronic diseases, such as colorectal cancer. An illness-death model is adopted, which inherently is a semi-competing risks model, since death can censor the disease, but not vice versa. Using a shared-frailty approach to account for the dependence between time to disease diagnosis and time to death, we provide a new illness-death model that assumes Cox models for the marginal hazard functions. The recruitment procedure used in this study introduces delayed entry to the data. An additional challenge arising from the recruitment procedure is that information coming from both prevalent and incident cases must be aggregated. Lastly, we do not observe any deaths prior to the minimal recruitment age, 40. In this work, we provide an estimation procedure for our new illness-death model that overcomes all the above challenges. Supplementary materials for this article, including a standardized description of the materials available for reproducing the work, are available as an online supplement.
Neta Kligler-Vilenchik, Maya de Vries Kedem, Daniel Maier, and Daniela Stoltenberg. 2021. “Mobilization vs. Demobilization Discourses on Social Media.” Political Communication, 38, Pp. 561-580. Abstract
ABSTRACTWhile scholarly attention has been devoted to social media?s potential mobilizing function, they may also contribute to demobilization discourses: social communication actively promoting nonvoting. This paper examines discourses around mobilization vs. demobilization in the context of the municipal elections in Jerusalem. As the sweeping majority of East Jerusalem Palestinians have continuously been boycotting Jerusalem?s municipal elections, this is a potent case through which to examine how demobilization functions in action, through social media conversations. Using a mixed-methods analysis of Twitter contents as structured by different languages, our findings show how mobilization and demobilization discourses can co-occur during the same election event. Users of different languages ? reflecting different social and political identities ? interpret the elections in contrasting ways, with tangible implications for (in)equality in political participation. The study thus contributes theoretically to several domains of political communication, including election studies, local politics, and language fragmentation in online political discourse.
Moran Yarchi, Christian Baden, and Neta Kligler-Vilenchik. 2021. “Political Polarization on the Digital Sphere: A Cross-platform, Over-time Analysis of Interactional, Positional, and Affective Polarization on Social Media.” Political Communication, 38, Pp. 98-139. Abstract
ABSTRACTPolitical polarization on the digital sphere poses a real challenge to many democracies around the world. Although the issue has received some scholarly attention, there is a need to improve the conceptual precision in the increasingly blurry debate. The use of computational communication science approaches allows us to track political conversations in a fine-grained manner within their natural settings ? the realm of interactive social media. The present study combines different algorithmic approaches to studying social media data in order to capture both the interactional structure and content of dynamic political talk online. We conducted an analysis of political polarization across social media platforms (analyzing Facebook, Twitter, and WhatsApp) over 16 months, with close to a quarter million online contributions regarding a political controversy in Israel. Our comprehensive measurement of interactive political talk enables us to address three key aspects of political polarization: (1) interactional polarization ? homophilic versus heterophilic user interactions; (2) positional polarization ? the positions expressed, and (3) affective polarization ? the emotions and attitudes expressed. Our findings indicate that political polarization on social media cannot be conceptualized as a unified phenomenon, as there are significant cross-platform differences. While interactions on Twitter largely conform to established expectations (homophilic interaction patterns, aggravating positional polarization, pronounced inter-group hostility), on WhatsApp, de-polarization occurred over time. Surprisingly, Facebook was found to be the least homophilic platform in terms of interactions, positions, and emotions expressed. Our analysis points to key conceptual distinctions and raises important questions about the drivers and dynamics of political polarization online.
Alon Zoizner, Shaul R. Shenhav, Yair Fogel-Dror, and Tamir Sheafer. 2021. “Strategy News Is Good News: How Journalistic Coverage of Politics Reduces Affective Polarization.” Political Communication, 38, Pp. 604-623. Abstract
ABSTRACTWhat role does news content play in explaining inter-party hostility? We argue that affective polarization is influenced by exposure to one of the most dominant ways to cover politics: strategy coverage. While previous studies have pointed to the negative consequences of covering politicians? strategies and campaign tactics, we find that this reporting style decreases out-party hostility. Our findings are based on two separate studies: (1) a survey experiment and (2) a cross-sectional analysis that increases external validity by combining survey data with computational content analysis of the articles respondents were exposed to by their primary news sources throughout the 2016 US presidential campaign (415,604 articles from 157 American news outlets). The results demonstrate that despite the wide criticism of the tendency of journalists to focus on political strategies, such coverage may ease inter-party tensions in American politics.
Edna Guk and Noam Levin. 2020. “Analyzing spatial variability in night-time lights using a high spatial resolution color Jilin-1 image – Jerusalem as a case study.” ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 163, Pp. 121-136. Abstract
In recent decades, there has been an increase in artificial lighting in the world due to urbanization and the revolution of LED lighting. Artificial lighting is an indicator of human activity, but can adversely affect natural ecosystems and people due to negative impacts of light pollution. Space-borne and airborne imagery as well as ground-based measurements enable to measure the intensity and spectra of artificial lights. One of the challenges in remote sensing of night-time lights is how to ground truth night-time imagery acquired by satellites, and how much do space-borne measurements represent the brightness as perceived by organisms. Most of the studies on night-time lights to-date were done using panchromatic sensors at large spatial extents, which did not allow to examine intra-urban variation in night light intensity and spectra. The aim of this study was to test the capability of the new Chinese satellite Jilin-1, which is the first commercial satellite to offer multispectral night-light imagery at a spatial resolution below 1 m, to characterize the night-time properties of urban areas. We examined the correspondence between light intensities as measured from different sensors at different spatial resolutions: two Jilin-1 images of the Jerusalem metropolitan area (0.89 m), VIIRS/DNB (500 m), Loujia-1 (130 m), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) color image (0.05 m) and hemispherical color photographs taken by a calibrated ground DSLR (digital single-lens reflex camera). In all the comparisons between different remote sensing tools, as the spatial resolution coarsened, the Pearson correlation coefficient increased, reaching r > 0.5 (after resampling to 100 m). Stronger correlations were found for the red band, and weaker correlations were found for the blue band, probably due to atmospheric scattering. By identifying specific objects such as buildings and lightings, we found good correspondence (R2=0.51) between Jilin-1 and the ground-based measurements of night-time brightness. We further examined the variability of night lights within different land use types and within different ethnic/religion composition of statistical areas. We found that residential areas of Orthodox Jews were characterized with the highest brightness at night compared with residential areas of Arabs in the West Bank that had the lowest brightness. At the statistical zone level (n = 299), more than 50% of the variability in night-time brightness, was explained by land cover properties (NDVI), infrastructure (roads and built volume) and the ethnic/religious composition. In addition, we found that the spectral ratio index which was based on the red and green bands, enabled to better distinguish between land use classes, than the spectral ratio index which was based on the green and blue bands. The availability of night-time multi-spectral imagery at fine spatial resolution now enables to study urban land-use and spatial inequality, and to better understand the factors explaining night-time brightness.
Claire M. Gillan, Eyal Kalanthroff, Michael Evans, Hilary M. Weingarden, Ryan J. Jacoby, Marina Gershkovich, Ivar Snorrason, Raphael Campeas, Cynthia Cervoni, Nicholas Charles Crimarco, Yosef Sokol, Sarah L. Garnaat, Nicole C. R. McLaughlin, Elizabeth A. Phelps, Anthony Pinto, Christina L. Boisseau, Sabine Wilhelm, Nathaniel D. Daw, and H. B. Simpson. 2020. “Comparison of the Association Between Goal-Directed Planning and Self-reported Compulsivity vs Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Diagnosis.” JAMA Psychiatry, 77, Pp. 77-85. Abstract
Dimensional definitions of transdiagnostic mental health problems have been suggested as an alternative to categorical diagnoses, having the advantage of capturing heterogeneity within diagnostic categories and similarity across them and bridging more naturally psychological and neural substrates.To examine whether a self-reported compulsivity dimension has a stronger association with goal-directed and related higher-order cognitive deficits compared with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).In this cross-sectional study, patients with OCD and/or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) from across the United States completed a telephone-based diagnostic interview by a trained rater, internet-based cognitive testing, and self-reported clinical assessments from October 8, 2015, to October 1, 2017. Follow-up data were collected to test for replicability.Performance was measured on a test of goal-directed planning and cognitive flexibility (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST]) and a test of abstract reasoning. Clinical variables included DSM-5 diagnosis of OCD and GAD and 3 psychiatric symptom dimensions (general distress, compulsivity, and obsessionality) derived from a factor analysis.Of 285 individuals in the analysis (mean [SD] age, 32 [12] years; age range, 18-77 years; 219 [76.8%] female), 111 had OCD; 82, GAD; and 92, OCD and GAD. A diagnosis of OCD was not associated with goal-directed performance compared with GAD at baseline (β [SE], −0.02 [0.02]; P = .18). In contrast, a compulsivity dimension was negatively associated with goal-directed performance (β [SE], −0.05 [0.02]; P = .003). Results for abstract reasoning task and WCST mirrored this pattern; the compulsivity dimension was associated with abstract reasoning (β [SE], 2.99 [0.63]; P < .001) and several indicators of WCST performance (eg, categories completed: β [SE], −0.57 [0.09]; P < .001), whereas OCD diagnosis was not (abstract reasoning: β [SE], 0.39 [0.66]; P = .56; categories completed: β [SE], −0.09 [0.10]; P = .38). Other symptom dimensions relevant to OCD, obsessionality, and general distress had no reliable association with goal-directed performance, WCST, or abstract reasoning. Obsessionality had a positive association with requiring more trials to reach the first category on the WCST at baseline (β [SE], 2.92 [1.39]; P = .04), and general distress was associated with impaired goal-directed performance at baseline (β [SE],−0.04 [0.02]; P = .01). However, unlike the key results of this study, neither survived correction for multiple comparisons or was replicated at follow-up testing.Deficits in goal-directed planning in OCD may be more strongly associated with a compulsivity dimension than with OCD diagnosis. This result may have implications for research assessing the association between brain mechanisms and clinical manifestations and for understanding the structure of mental illness.
Luolin Zhao and Nicholas John. 2020. “The concept of ‘sharing’ in Chinese social media: origins, transformations and implications.” Information, Communication & Society, Pp. 1-17. Abstract
ABSTRACTIn this article we present an analysis of the concepts of fenxiang and gongxiang ? the Mandarin words for ?sharing?? in the context of Chinese social media. We do so through an interrogation of the words fenxiang and gongxiang as used by Chinese social media companies. Using the Internet Archive?s Wayback Machine, we created screenshots of 32 Chinese social network sites between 2000 and 2018 and tracked changes in the usage of fenxiang and gongxiang over time. The Mandarin translations in some ways operate like the English word, ?sharing?. Fenxiang has the meaning of participating in social media, and gongxiang refers to technological aspects of sharing, while also conveying a sense of harmony. However, the interpersonal relations implied by fenxiang, and the political order implied by gongxiang, are quite different from those conveyed by ?sharing?. Together, fenxiang and gongxiang construct a convergence of micro-level interpersonal harmony and macro-level social harmony. Thus, the language of sharing becomes the lens through which to observe the subtlety, complexity and idiosyncrasies of the Chinese internet. This article offers a new heuristic for understanding Chinese social media, while also pointing to an important facet of the discursive construction of Chinese social media. This implies a continuing need to de-westernize research into the internet and to identify cultural-specific meanings of social media.
In light of the growing unmarried demographic, this study analyzed the extent and determinants of sexual satisfaction among seven relationship-status groups: married, never married, and those who are divorced/separated, where the latter two groups are further divided into single, living apart together (LAT), and cohabiting. In addition, the study measured the levels of sexual self-esteem, sexual communication, and sex frequency for the different relationship-status groups as predictors of sexual satisfaction. Finally, this study also analyzed sexual satisfaction while accounting for overall life satisfaction. Using the ninth wave of the Pairfam data set and analyzing the responses of 3,207 respondents in total, this study suggests that marriage is not a determinant for sexual satisfaction. In fact, it can even be a negative correlate when married respondents are compared to certain unmarried groups. The only exception is that of unmarried individuals who currently have no partner. Even this situation is shown to be dependent only on less frequent intercourse, not on a lack of sexual self-esteem and sexual communication. These conclusions challenge previous research as well as the explanations of earlier scholars. Several directions for future research are discussed in light of these findings.
Roberto Danovaro, Emanuela Fanelli, Jacopo Aguzzi, David Billett, Laura Carugati, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Dell’Anno, Kristina Gjerde, Alan J. Jamieson, Salit Kark, Craig McClain, Lisa Levin, Noam Levin, Eva Ramirez-Llodra, Henry Ruhl, Craig R. Smith, Paul V. R. Snelgrove, Laurenz Thomsen, Cindy L. Van Dover, and Moriaki Yasuhara. 2020. “Ecological variables for developing a global deep-ocean monitoring and conservation strategy.” Nature Ecology & Evolution, 4, Pp. 181-192. Abstract
The deep sea (>200 m depth) encompasses >95% of the world’s ocean volume and represents the largest and least explored biome on Earth (<0.0001% of ocean surface), yet is increasingly under threat from multiple direct and indirect anthropogenic pressures. Our ability to preserve both benthic and pelagic deep-sea ecosystems depends upon effective ecosystem-based management strategies and monitoring based on widely agreed deep-sea ecological variables. Here, we identify a set of deep-sea essential ecological variables among five scientific areas of the deep ocean: (1) biodiversity; (2) ecosystem functions; (3) impacts and risk assessment; (4) climate change, adaptation and evolution; and (5) ecosystem conservation. Conducting an expert elicitation (1,155 deep-sea scientists consulted and 112 respondents), our analysis indicates a wide consensus amongst deep-sea experts that monitoring should prioritize large organisms (that is, macro- and megafauna) living in deep waters and in benthic habitats, whereas monitoring of ecosystem functioning should focus on trophic structure and biomass production. Habitat degradation and recovery rates are identified as crucial features for monitoring deep-sea ecosystem health, while global climate change will likely shift bathymetric distributions and cause local extinction in deep-sea species. Finally, deep-sea conservation efforts should focus primarily on vulnerable marine ecosystems and habitat-forming species. Deep-sea observation efforts that prioritize these variables will help to support the implementation of effective management strategies on a global scale.
Sivan Frenkel, Ilan Guttman, and Ilan Kremer. 2020. “The effect of exogenous information on voluntary disclosure and market quality.” Journal of Financial Economics, 138, Pp. 176-192. Abstract
We analyze a model in which information may be voluntarily disclosed by a firm and/or by a third party, e.g., financial analysts. Due to its strategic nature, corporate voluntary disclosure is qualitatively different from third-party disclosure. Greater analyst coverage crowds out (crowds in) corporate voluntary disclosure when analysts mostly discover information that is available (unavailable) to the firm. Nevertheless, greater analyst coverage always improves the overall quality of public information. We base this claim on two market quality measures: price efficiency, which is statistical in nature, and liquidity, which is derived in a trading stage that follows the disclosure stage.
Lily Agranat-Tamir, Shamam Waldman, Mario A. S. Martin, David Gokhman, Nadav Mishol, Tzilla Eshel, Olivia Cheronet, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Nicole Adamski, Ann Marie Lawson, Matthew Mah, Megan Michel, Jonas Oppenheimer, Kristin Stewardson, Francesca Candilio, Denise Keating, Beatriz Gamarra, Shay Tzur, Mario Novak, Rachel Kalisher, Shlomit Bechar, Vered Eshed, Douglas J. Kennett, Marina Faerman, Naama Yahalom-Mack, Janet M. Monge, Yehuda Govrin, Yigal Erel, Benjamin Yakir, Ron Pinhasi, Shai Carmi, Israel Finkelstein, Liran Carmel, and David Reich. 2020. “The Genomic History of the Bronze Age Southern Levant.” Cell, 181, Pp. 1146-1157.e11. Abstract
Summary We report genome-wide DNA data for 73 individuals from five archaeological sites across the Bronze and Iron Ages Southern Levant. These individuals, who share the “Canaanite” material culture, can be modeled as descending from two sources: (1) earlier local Neolithic populations and (2) populations related to the Chalcolithic Zagros or the Bronze Age Caucasus. The non-local contribution increased over time, as evinced by three outliers who can be modeled as descendants of recent migrants. We show evidence that different “Canaanite” groups genetically resemble each other more than other populations. We find that Levant-related modern populations typically have substantial ancestry coming from populations related to the Chalcolithic Zagros and the Bronze Age Southern Levant. These groups also harbor ancestry from sources we cannot fully model with the available data, highlighting the critical role of post-Bronze-Age migrations into the region over the past 3,000 years.
Christian Baden, Neta Kligler-Vilenchik, and Moran Yarchi. 2020. “Hybrid Content Analysis: Toward a Strategy for the Theory-driven, Computer-assisted Classification of Large Text Corpora.” Communication Methods and Measures, 14, Pp. 165-183. Abstract
ABSTRACTGiven the scale of digital communication, researchers face a painful trade-off between powerful, scalable computational strategies, and the theoretical sensitivity offered by small-scale manual analyses. Especially in the study of natural discourse on digital media, the interactive, ever-evolving stream of conversations across multiple platforms regularly defies efforts to obtain well-defined samples of manageable size, while their linguistic variability imposes major limitations upon the accuracy of automated tools. In this paper, we draw upon recent advances in computational text analysis to develop a hybrid approach to the deductive analysis of large-scale digital discourse, which combines the algorithmic extraction of coherent, recurrent patterns with a manual coding of identified patterns. The approach scales up to treat millions of texts at minimal added human effort, while affording researchers close control over the process of theory-guided classification. We demonstrate the power of Hybrid Content Analysis by studying polarization in a quarter of a million contributions from cross-platform interactive social media discourse about a controversial incident.
Noam Shoval, Alon Kahani, Stefano De Cantis, and Mauro Ferrante. 2020. “Impact of incentives on tourist activity in space-time.” Annals of Tourism Research, 80, Pp. 102846. Abstract
No tourism study to date, has examined the ability of incentives to shape the spatio-temporal behaviour of tourists. Data collected from the port of Palermo in Sicily (Italy), using traditional survey instruments as well as GPS technology, was employed to investigate the effect of incentives on cruise passengers' space-time activities. The results show the incentives' clear and significant impact in influencing the space-time activities of cruise passengers' while visiting the city. Understanding the movement patterns of visitors at destinations can give destination managers information that can assist in dealing with the negative effects of overtourism that are caused due to high concentrations of visitors in both space and time in relatively small and well-defined sites and areas.
Anat Tchetchik, Liat I. Zvi, Sigal Kaplan, and Vered Blass. 2020. “The joint effects of driving hedonism and trialability on the choice between internal combustion engine, hybrid, and electric vehicles.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 151, Pp. 119815. Abstract
The low penetration rate of electric vehicles (EVs) is raising concern among policy makers and car designers who face risky decisions whether to invest in EV technology and promotion. Traditionally, battery electric vehicles (BEV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) were considered successive technologies. Yet, it is becoming apparent that in the next few decades these technologies will co-exist, which revives the interest in the choice amongst them. This study focuses on normative and hedonic goals to understand the impact of innovativeness and driving hedonism and their interaction with user experience and pro-environmental attitudes of consumers choosing between conventional, hybrid and electric cars. The behavioral model challenges utility-based models of auto propulsion choices by integrating hedonic goal-framing and its interaction with product experience into Rogers’ diffusion of innovation model. In a discrete choice experiment informed by stated-preference Bayesian efficient design among 309 participants, we find that the interaction between driving hedonism and BEV 'trialability' is positively related to the adoption of HEVs rather than of BEVs. Compared to environmental consumers who lack driving hedonism, the segment of innovative-environmentalists act as BEV adoption pioneers and the segment of innovative-environmentalist-hedonists are HEV adoption pioneers.
Asaf Nissenbaum and Limor Shifman. 2020. “Laughing alone, together: local user-generated satirical responses to a global event.” Information, Communication & Society, Pp. 1-18.
Reut Avinun, Salomon Israel, Annchen R. Knodt, and Ahmad R. Hariri. 2020. “Little evidence for associations between the Big Five personality traits and variability in brain gray or white matter.” NeuroImage, 220, Pp. 117092. Abstract
Attempts to link the Big Five personality traits of Openness-to-Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism with variability in trait-like features of brain structure have produced inconsistent results. Small sample sizes and heterogeneous methodology have been suspected in driving these inconsistencies. Here, using data collected from 1,107 university students (636 women, mean age 19.69 ​± ​1.24 years), representing the largest sample to date of unrelated individuals, we tested for associations between the Big Five personality traits and measures of cortical thickness and surface area, subcortical volume, and white matter microstructural integrity. In addition to replication analyses based on a prior study, we conducted exploratory whole-brain analyses. Four supplementary analyses were also conducted to examine 1) possible associations with lower-order facets of personality; 2) modulatory effects of sex; 3) effect of controlling for non-target personality traits; and 4) parcellation scheme effects. Our analyses failed to identify significant associations between the Big Five personality traits and brain morphometry, except for a weak association between greater surface area of the superior temporal gyrus and lower conscientiousness scores. As the latter association is not supported by previous studies, it should be treated with caution. Our supplementary analyses mirrored these predominantly null findings, suggesting they were not substantively biased by our analytic choices. Collectively, these results indicate that if there are associations between the Big Five personality traits and brain structure, they are likely of very small effect size and will require very large samples for reliable detection.
Tobias Ebbrecht-Hartmann. 2020. “Media resonance and conflicting memories: Historical event movies as conflict zone.” Memory Studies, Pp. 1750698020907948. Abstract
The three-part German television drama Generation War (2013) created a national and subsequently international debate about the past and present of wartime memories. While these discussions were framed nationally as intergenerational dialogue, in the context of a unified Europe that is still struggling with its own self-perception and identity, the framework of international disputes about interpretation of the war was marked by conflicting memories. As a result, and within the increasingly interdependent network of popular television, transnational media and conflicting European memories, Generation War became a televised conflict zone. This article analyses the film as a historical event movie that borrows central aspects from the docudrama genre. It argues that the extra-textual dimension of such programmes is gaining more and more importance for creating resonance effects and thereby also delineates a model of media resonance that reflects the mainly overlooked role that resonance plays with regard to memory processes.
Barak Ben-Aroia and Tobias Ebbrecht-Hartmann. 2020. “Memorials as discursive spheres: Holocaust and Second World War iconography in public commemoration of extremist-right violence.” Memory Studies, 14, Pp. 797-818. Abstract
In recent decades, the experience of non-governmental politically motivated violence became a central element of global memory culture. Motivated by several shocking attacks at the beginning of the new millennium, this commemorative culture evolved in a memory ecology, which was significantly shaped by the prosperity of global Holocaust memory. Therefore, public commemoration of politically motivated violence intersects different discursive elements, leading to multidirectional forms of memory. Based on interdisciplinary theoretical approaches, this article examines public memorials commemorating two notable cases of neo-Nazi xenophobic attacks in Germany as discursive spheres referring to the confrontation with the country?s unique past and its impact on Germany?s contemporary self-image challenged by right-wing extremism. We argue that various commemorative actors in the field adopted and appropriated Second World War and Holocaust-related iconography and terminology to shape these memory sites as instruments linking current Germany to the period of National Socialism.