Yossi David and Christian Baden. 2020. “Reframing community boundaries: the erosive power of new media spaces in authoritarian societies.” Information, Communication & Society, 23, Pp. 110-127. Abstract
ABSTRACTThis study examines the role of digital media within the Ultra-Orthodox Jewish community in Israel, a conservative closed community, whose leadership is unable or unwilling to control the effects of digital media on the rank-and-file. Over the past decade, digital media have played an important role for challenging authoritarian rule around the globe. Especially in ideological communities sustained by strict taboos, digital media hold the potential to subvert hegemonic discourses. In this study, we make use of an incident that forced Israel?s Ultra-Orthodox community to address its long-standing taboo and hateful attitudes toward LGBT and Queer issues. In July 2015, an Ultra-Orthodox community member attacked participants of the Jerusalem Gay Pride Parade, murdering one and wounding six. While traditional community media attempted to ignore the event, two major Ultra-Orthodox news websites fell outside the control exercised by the community leadership, and enabled subversive discussions within the Ultra-Orthodox community. Through a process of negotiating the meaning of the attack, these discussions resulted in a reframing of the boundaries of the community, breaking a path for further contestation and debate. Using grounded theory analysis, this article contributes to a better understanding of the role of digital media in enabling contestation and challenging established power structures within authoritarian closed communities.
Noam Levin, Christopher C. M. Kyba, Qingling Zhang, Alejandro Sánchez de Miguel, Miguel O. Román, Xi Li, Boris A. Portnov, Andrew L. Molthan, Andreas Jechow, Steven D. Miller, Zhuosen Wang, Ranjay M. Shrestha, and Christopher D. Elvidge. 2020. “Remote sensing of night lights: A review and an outlook for the future.” Remote Sensing of Environment, 237, Pp. 111443. Abstract
Remote sensing of night light emissions in the visible band offers a unique opportunity to directly observe human activity from space. This has allowed a host of applications including mapping urban areas, estimating population and GDP, monitoring disasters and conflicts. More recently, remotely sensed night lights data have found use in understanding the environmental impacts of light emissions (light pollution), including their impacts on human health. In this review, we outline the historical development of night-time optical sensors up to the current state of the art sensors, highlight various applications of night light data, discuss the special challenges associated with remote sensing of night lights with a focus on the limitations of current sensors, and provide an outlook for the future of remote sensing of night lights. While the paper mainly focuses on space borne remote sensing, ground based sensing of night-time brightness for studies on astronomical and ecological light pollution, as well as for calibration and validation of space borne data, are also discussed. Although the development of night light sensors lags behind day-time sensors, we demonstrate that the field is in a stage of rapid development. The worldwide transition to LED lights poses a particular challenge for remote sensing of night lights, and strongly highlights the need for a new generation of space borne night lights instruments. This work shows that future sensors are needed to monitor temporal changes during the night (for example from a geostationary platform or constellation of satellites), and to better understand the angular patterns of light emission (roughly analogous to the BRDF in daylight sensing). Perhaps most importantly, we make the case that higher spatial resolution and multispectral sensors covering the range from blue to NIR are needed to more effectively identify lighting technologies, map urban functions, and monitor energy use.
Noam Gal, Zohar Kampf, and Limor Shifman. 2020. “SRSLY?? A typology of online ironic markers.” Information, Communication & Society, Pp. 1-18. Abstract
ABSTRACTSocial media constitute a fertile though challenging arena for the use of ironic humor. A combination of facilitating and hindering factors turns the production and identification of irony in this sphere into a complex venture, positioning it as a powerful tool in consolidating group boundaries. The main aims of this paper are to identify the markers of ironic humor on social media and to explicate their workings within the dynamics of digital interactions. Existing literature about ironic markers addresses mostly face-to-face and mass-mediated interactions, while there is a gap in our understanding of the production and interpretation of irony in the unique communicative conditions of social media. An analysis of a bilingual corpus of successful and failed ironic utterances extracted from five social network sites yielded a novel typology of five ironic markers: platform, participants, style, intra-textual content, and contextual knowledge. These markers both resemble and deviate from features of irony in non-digital settings. Media affordances often allow access to necessary complementary information, yet such forensic activity is only accessible to active users, who recognize the need for further investigation of the meant. Hence, using certain types of ironic markers forms utterances that are decipherable to some audiences but opaque to others. In this sense, the marking of digital irony and its decoding both rely on group boundaries and play a central role in their delineation. We conclude by evaluating the roles of this new regime of ironic markers in processes of boundary work.
Béatrice Hasler, Yossi Hasson, Daniel Landau, Noa Schori Eyal, Jonathan Giron, Jonathan Yoni Levy, Eran Halperin, and Doron Friedman. 2020. Virtual Reality-based Conflict Resolution: The Impact of Immersive 360° Video on Changing View Points and Moral Judgment in the Context of Violent Intergroup Conflict.
Michal Frenkel and Varda Wasserman. 2020. “With God on their Side: Gender–Religiosity Intersectionality and Women’s Workforce Integration.” Gender & Society, 34, Pp. 818-843. Abstract
On the basis of a case study of the integration of Haredi Jewish women into the Israeli high-tech industry, we explore how gender?religiosity intersectionality affects ultra-conservative women?s participation in the labor market and their ability to negotiate with employers for corporate work?family practices that address their idiosyncratic requirements. We highlight the importance of pious women?s affiliation to their highly organized religious communities while taking a process-centered approach to intersectionality and focusing on the matrix of domination formed by the Israeli state, employers, and the organized ultra-orthodox community. We dub this set of actors ?the unholy-trinity? and argue that it constructs a specific, religion-centric inequality regime that restrains women?s job and earning opportunities. At the same time, the ?unholy trinity? also empowers women in their struggle to create a working environment that is receptive to their religiosity and what that commitment demands of them.